ReproLinePlus: JHPIEGO (Johns Hopkins Program for International Education in Gynecology and Obstetrics), an affiliate of Johns Hopkins University, advocates a competency-based approach to training. Focusing on health education and training, JHPIEGO outlines key characteristics and advantages of competency-based programs. Competency-based training programs both enable participants to achieve necessary job required competencies and provide for more efficient use of training time. For more information visit http://www.reproline.jhu.edu/english/6read/6training/cbt/cbt.htm.
Institute for Advanced Education in Geospatial Sciences (IAEGS): To address the need to develop a highly skilled Remote Sensing/GIS workforce the Institute for Advanced Education in Geospatial Sciences (IAEGS) at The University of Southern Mississippi developed a competency model that articulates required technical, business, analytical, and interpersonal skills. The model enables organizations to "describe the kinds of workers needed in the geospatial information technology industry; improve employee recruitment and selection; manage the performance of existing employees; and design geospatial information technology training and education programs." For more information visit http://www.geoworkforce.olemiss.edu/.
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) maintains a competency-based infrastructure supported by related training and development activities for managers and employees in key occupations. This infrastructure serves as the basis for many different human resource programs such as career development programs, professional certifications, and licensure programs. For an example of a competency-based licensure exam guide for commercial pilots, visit http://www.faa.gov/training_testing/
Federal Acquisition Institute (FAI) Competency-Based Career Development Training Guide: In 1999, The FAI initiated a competency-based career development program to promote the professional development of the acquisition workforce. As part of the program, the FAI designed a Competency-Based Career Development Training Guide. The Guide serves as a model for employees to build individual development plans, which guide their professional growth, particularly in the early years of a career in Federal acquisition.
Organizing acquisition career management around specific competencies effectively drives new methods of managing individuals' acquisition careers. By reinforcing the need for business acumen, customer service, flexibility, leadership, and integrity through competencies, the adoption of a results-oriented approach to acquisition and the attainment of business goals can be more easily accomplished. For more information, visit http://www.fai.gov/drupal/community/competencies.
Environmental Competency Building (ECB): The Federal Highway Administration implemented an Environmental Competency Building (ECB) Program in collaboration with a steering committee of transportation and environmental stakeholders. ECB includes a Competency Navigator that identifies nine roles linked to key environmental and technical competencies, and a resource database of related classroom training, published research, technical assistance, and websites. The ECB program supports the identification, development, and promotion of effective strategies and resources to enhance the ability of professionals to deliver environmentally sustainable transportation programs. For more information visit http://environment.fhwa.dot.gov/ecb/index.aspx.
CHART Blueprint for Trainer Development: The Council of Hotel and Restaurant Trainers (CHART), developed a customized competency model for trainers in the Hospitality Industry. The model is a blueprint for trainer development serving as a guide to define roles, clarify job descriptions, select personnel, and align training with organizational needs. Effective training results in increased employee job satisfaction, better retention and lower turnover. For more information, visit http://www.chart.org/?x=resources_trainer_competencies.
Cincinnati Public Schools Teacher Evaluation System (TES): Cincinnati Public Schools uses a standards-based teacher evaluation system and career ladder program. The Teacher Evaluation System (TES) has been nationally recognized as a leading model for enhancing teacher professionalism and supporting higher student performance. Teachers are evaluated against standards of good teaching practices. These standards define the skills and responsibilities critical to successful teaching and give teachers clear performance and professional development expectations. The Career-In-Teaching program classifies teachers into five career levels from Apprentice through Accomplished. Through continuing education and regular evaluations, teachers work to move up the levels leading to increased responsibilities and higher pay. For more information visit http://www.cps-k12.org/about-cps/tes.
Columbia-Greene WIB Employeee Enhancement Program: The Workforce Investment Board (WIB) of Columbia and Greene Counties in New York has been instrumental in developing a business-focused "soft" skills training program designed to assist local businesses to improve the social skills of their employees. Under the Employee Enhancment Program, an employee attends four instructional workshops and is evaluated by his/her supervisor using a WIB developed Employee Competency Evaluation. The Workforce Investment Board grants the New Employee Credential to employees that have demonstrated the required skills as documented by their supervisor's positive evaluation. For more information, visit http://www.columbiagreeneworks.org/eep.html.
Alberta Government Public Service Competency Model: The government of Alberta has taken a competency-based approach to human resources functions by creating an Alberta Public Service Competency Model and Competency Implementation Guide. The model identifies both core competencies (those that apply to all positions with the APS) and role specific competencies (those that apply only to certain roles). To compliment and maximize the full potential of the competency model, the guide provides tools to implement the model and describes uses of competencies in the key human resources areas including: Recruitment, Selection and Staffing, Learning and Development, Career and Succession Planning, Performance Management, and Rewards and Recognition. For more information, visit http://www.chr.alberta.ca/Practitioners/DocList353.cfm?cl=3.
Work for Water : Work for Water developed an informational Web site to help students and job seekers explore careers in the water sector. The site features the Water Sector Competency Model as a resource for potential workers demonstrating the skills needed to work in the field. The site also provides the model as a management, recruitment, and retention tool for current water sector professionals. Work for Water is a joint project of the American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation training and education divisions. For more information, visit http://www.workforwater.org/.
Washington State Workforce Planning: The state of Washington faces significant workforce challenges including increased turnover, intensified competition for qualified employees, and fast-paced changes in how work is accomplished. To ensure staff levels and competencies are in place to carry out future missions, the Washington State Department of Personnel has designed a four-phase Workforce Planning Model.
The model explains the role competencies play in four key steps to workforce analysis: Demand Forecast, Supply Projection, Gap Analysis, and Strategy Development. First, state agencies must create a competency model that encompasses the key knowledge, skills, and abilities employees will need to successfully carry out work in the future. Next, agencies must develop a present workforce profile, which includes assessing employees' current competencies, to project future supply. The third step is a gap analysis comparing the demand forecast and supply projection to identify gaps and surpluses in staffing levels and competencies. Finally, Washington state agencies can use the results of the gap analysis to develop strategies to attract and develop staff with needed competencies. For more information, visit http://www.dop.wa.gov/WorkforceDataAndPlanning/WorkforcePlanning/Pages/defa
Case In Point: The Conference Board, a not-for-profit business membership and research organization, has developed a competency model for Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) practitioners. The model was developed to address the recent evolution in the role and function of D&I practitioners. Once primarily compliance-driven and tactical, the role of D&I practitioners is becoming business-driven and strategic, as D&I practitioners help their companies enter new markets, build profitable relationships, and develop credibility across different cultures. The model will help companies hire and manage D&I executives, plan for replacements, and clearly define the functions of their D&I professionals. Intended to be measurable and globally applicable, the model includes competencies grouped into seven categories and behaviorally-based definitions for each competency. For more information visit
Case in point - To improve employee productivity and performance, the Texas Cooperative Extension takes a competency-based approach to professional development. The Texas Extension Competency Model articulates the competencies that make for a successful Extension employee and serves as the foundation for self-assessments that target areas for professional development. By promoting the mastery of critical competencies, the Texas Cooperative Extension encourages the professional growth and development of its employees, which in turn enhances their ability to provide quality programs and services to their clientele. For more information visit http://collaborate.extension.org/mediawiki/files/e/e5/TexasAgriLifeCompeten
Case In Point: In an article in Training and Development magazine titled "Using Competency Models to Target Training Needs: Lessons Learned," Marjorie Derven summarizes the benefits and functions of competency models and stresses their importance for business effectiveness and targeting training needs. Competency models create a common vocabulary for discussing performance, help employees better understand how to target their efforts, and promote performance-based discussion between managers and employees, all while promoting the desired corporate culture. Effective competency models are concise but detailed enough to be a blueprint for action; memorable; consistent with the culture; sponsored by executives; integrated with multiple, specific applications; and updated regularly. Competency models can be a powerful tool for targeting training by helping companies understand the key factors that drive performance. For more information visit http://www.astd.org/TD/Archives/2008/Dec/0812_Lessons_Learned_Feature.htm.
Case in Point: To provide comprehensive and consistent orientation to their Acute Care Nursing Units, The University of California, San Diego Medical Center developed the Nursing Competency Based Orientation Pathway (CBO). The CBO guides new employees in understanding the expectations of the University. The competencies identified in the CBO provide a foundation for employee development efforts that promote high standards of nursing practice. New hires complete a self-assessment before orientation begins. The results of the self-assessment inform the development of individualized orientations tailored to the learning needs of the employee. For more information, visit http://edr.ucsd.edu/NR/rdonlyres/D5EF5EA5-004E-4E2E-BFBB-4F0FF7CBDBDC/0/NUR
Case in point
- As part of the U.S. Government Accountability Office's (GAO) 2002 - 2007 Strategic Plan to become a model federal agency and a world-class professional services organization, the agency chose to implement competency-based performance management and compensation systems for key personnel. It is hoped that the new systems will improve individual and team performance to support the agency's core values, strategic plan, and performance goals. For more information, visit http://www.gao.gov/sp.html
Case in Point: As part of its strategy for continuous employee development through lifelong learning, the U.S. Census Bureau established the Census Corporate University (CCU). For current supervisors and managers, CCU provides Management and Executive Development competency-based curriculum that emphasizes four key context areas of public management: public leadership, business management, institutional environment, and valuing people. For professional employees, CCU offers Professional Development and Leadership competency-based courses to advance knowledge and skills necessary for professional and organizational growth. CCU also offers Technical and Administrative Support Staff competency-based training courses that build confidence, capability, and competitiveness while increasing skill and knowledge needed for a strong technical and support staff. For more information, visit http://www.census.gov/hrd/www/benefits/lifelong.html.
Case in Point: The University Consortium for Geographic Information Science has developed a comprehensive Body of Knowledge to define the competencies needed for success in a variety of professions in the geospatial industry. The resource specifies what aspiring geospatial professionals need to know and be able to do. The Consortium anticipates this resource will serve as the basis for developing curricula; comparing educational programs; informing professional certification; and guiding employee recruitment, selection, and professional development. For more information, visit http://www.ucgis.org/priorities/education/modelcurriculaproject.asp.
Case In Point: The United Kingdom's National Health Service has developed a flexible, competency-based Career Framework for Health. The Career Framework consists of nine key elements or career levels. The levels range from Initial Entry Level Jobs which require little formal education, knowledge, skills or experience to More Senior Staff which includes staff with high-level decision making and accountability responsibilities. In a health care system that is moving towards developing a core foundation of competencies needed for specific tasks, the Career Framework provides a guide to career development. It supports flexible career development and illustrates progression opportunities for staff with transferable, competency-based skills. For more information visit http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/Publications
Case in Point: In setting the foundation for total performance management, the state of Wyoming is currently developing a competency based performance appraisal system. A goal of this performance appraisal system is to minimize subjectivity and replace it with objective criteria in measuring job performance. To do so, the state must first identify the competencies on which job performance and employee growth will be measured. The "core" competencies will then be utilized as a guide for measuring specific job duties performed. Additionally, the new performance management system will set the foundation for recruiting individuals who possess the competencies that the state has identified as necessary to be a successful and productive state employee. For more information, visit http://hr.state.wy.us/PACC/purpose3.htm.
Case in point - Due to the increasing demands being made on nurse leaders in professional positions, the Nursing Leadership Institute created a competency model to be used for selection, training, and development of nurse managers. The model is based on 120 one-on-one interviews with nurse managers in 24 healthcare facilities. For more information about this model, visit http://nursing.fau.edu/index.php?main=6&nav=384.
Case In Point: The Security Industry Association (SIA) undertook a training initiative to meet the Security industry's need for timely and relevant training. SIA developed a competency model to represent the skills needed to effectively perform seven critical security jobs, and built a curriculum map of the courses that teach the needed skills. The model and related curriculum map are resources for writing skill-based job descriptions, recruiting and selecting workers, training new workers, developing training and coaching programs. For more information visit http://www.siaonline.org/content.aspx?id=790.
Case in Point: The United States Office of Personnel Management (OPM) conducted a three-part study to assess changes affecting Human Resources (HR). In the third part of the study, OPM used an HR competency model as the organizing framework for a gap analysis. OPM compared results of an HR Competency Survey with information gathered from a literature review and interviews with HR executives. The results indicate gaps between the importance of specific competencies required to perform work and employees' ability in those competencies. OPM used the findings to inform transformation strategies designed to address the gaps and push HR functions toward new practices and approaches. For more information, visit http://www.opm.gov/studies/change.pdf.
Case in point - To help guide workforce and succession planning efforts, the New York State Department of Civil Service has developed a list of competencies with detailed behavioral descriptors http://www.cs.state.ny.us/successionplanning/workgroups/competencies/compet
encylist.html. Behavioral statements were chosen to describe the competencies because they provide a specific standard for determining whether the competency is present. The list of competencies serves as a resource for developing leadership and management competency models which in turn guide employee training, education, and development efforts. For more information on how New York state government uses this competency information, visit http://www.cs.state.ny.us/successionplanning/workgroups/competencies/compet