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Using the principles of mathematics to solve problems.

  • Know and apply mathematical principles:
    • Number Systems and Relationships – whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and percentages
    • Number Operations and Computation – addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division
    • Measurement and Estimation – measurement of time, temperature, distances, length, width, height, perimeter, area, volume, weight, velocity, and speed; unit conversion; numerical analysis to obtain approximate solutions when necessary
    • Mathematical Notation – the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas
    • Mathematical Reasoning and Problem Solving – inductive and deductive reasoning, conjectures, arguments, strategies, and interpretation of results
    • Statistics and Probability – standard deviation, variance, tests of significance, sampling, probability, and confidence intervals
    • Algebra – equations, patterns, functions, 3D vectors, and matrices
    • Geometry – size, shape, and position of figures; using geometric principles to solve problems
    • Trigonometry – relationships among the sides and angles of triangles on planes and spheres