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4.2 Design

The process of devising a system, component, or process to meet desired needs.

    4.2.1 Design
    • Identify the pertinent technical, environmental, economic, regulatory, cultural and other project requirements and constraints.
    • Gather information needed to fully understand the problem to be solved and form the basis for the evaluation of design alternatives.
    • Contribute to the development of alternatives by analyzing the pros and cons of alternative design options, preparing those design options, and assisting in the selection of an optimized design alternative.
    • Analyze the constructability or manufacturing feasibility of a project or product.
    • Design a basic facility, structure, system, product, or process to meet well-defined requirements.
    • Apply lessons learned from other design projects.
    • Maintain knowledge of current types of systems, equipment, information technology, and specifications that accomplish specific design objectives.
    • Consider human factors and ergonomics for employees creating products and for users of those products.
    • Identify and use the appropriate strategies and processes to test design (e.g., rapid prototyping).
    • Use engineering software appropriate to one's engineering discipline.
    • Understand physical and cybersecurity and apply key concepts within the design of a project to ensure secure operations.
    4.2.2 Technical Breadth and Depth
    • Integrate concepts of a related science or technology into design of a project, project component, or product.
    • Review research articles pertaining to a project component typically encountered in a specific area of engineering design.
    • Choose topics most appropriate for continuing education to increase depth of technical knowledge pertinent to the specific area of engineering practice.
    • Maintain knowledge of current types of systems, equipment, information technology, and specifications that accomplish specific design objectives.
    4.2.3 Risk, Reliability and Uncertainty
    • Describe the meaning, importance, and significance of risk, reliability, and uncertainty for the protection of public health, safety, welfare, and security in the design of a facility, structure, process, system or product.
    • Determine the appropriate type and quantity of data required to identify ranges of existing and future conditions in defining a problem to be resolved through design.
    • Identify and assess risk, reliability, and/or uncertainty in the design of an engineered component, system, or process including its impacts on the environment, economy, and society.
    • Apply concepts of risk, reliability, and/or uncertainty as an integral part of engineering design and decision making.
    • Calculate the probability or frequency of occurrence and resulting impact of risk in the design of an engineered component, system, or process.
    • Explain to the public issues relating to risk, reliability, and/or uncertainty in the design of an engineered component, system, or process.
    • Compare the pros and cons of alternative design options and assist in the selection of an optimized design alternative based on risk, reliability, and/or uncertainty analysis.
    4.2.4 Experiments
    • Apply knowledge of various experimental and prototyping methods.
    • Design and conduct experiments to test a hypothesis, such as the potential effectiveness of a proposed solution to an engineering problem.
    • Develop and recommend a plan of action based, in part on the experimental results.
    • Understand and apply the difference between accuracy and precision.
    • Understand and apply scale-ability or similitude.
    4.2.5 Systems Engineering
    • Identify and gather information needed to understand a multidimensional problem to be solved and to form the basis for the evaluation of alternatives and design.
    • Contribute to the development of alternatives in complex projects.
    • Analyze the pros and cons of alternative design options and assist in the selection of an optimized design alternative based on overall system characteristics and performance.
    • Define, specify, and/or implement effective interfaces between system components and subsystems to meet system-level requirements.
Knowledge Areas

    4.2.6 Design
    • Schematics and diagrams
    • Operating parameters
    • Operating and non-operating environmental stimuli
    • External dimensions
    • Materials requirements
    • Reliability requirements
    • External surface treatment
    • Design life
    • Packaging requirements
    • External marking
    • Computer-aided design programs
    • "Design for X" (design within constraints)
    • Intellectual property
    • Design, control and integration of systems
    4.2.7 Experiments
    • Test requirements
    • Maintenance and testability provisions
    • Digital computer models
    • Test protocol and procedures
    • Uncertainty analysis
    • Capabilities and limitations of test
    • Safety precautions