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5.5 Automation System Safety and Reliability

Understand, design and implement safe and reliable machinery and process control and safety systems.

Critical Work Functions

    5.5.1 Analyze and determine the need for design changes or additional equipment to improve safety
      5.5.2 Determine need for Safety Instrumented Systems (SIS)
        5.5.3 Determine the appropriate Safety Integrity Levels (SIL)
          5.5.4 Develop safety requirements specification
            5.5.5 Design, document, install, validate, periodically check, and maintain the safety equipment and systems
              5.5.6 Apply instrumentation procedures in hazardous areas safely
              Technical Content Areas

                5.5.7 Alarm management system
                • Alarm management system
                • HMI design for alarm systems
                • Key components of an alarm philosophy
                • Performance metrics for alarm systems
                • Products of alarm rationalization
                5.5.8 Reliability
                • Common cause and its impact on reliability
                • Concepts of
                  • Mean Time to Repair (MTTR)
                  • Mean time to Failure (MTTF)
                  • Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF)
                • Safe and dangerous failure modes
                • Testing intervals and its impact on performance
                • Types of redundancy and how they impact dangerous and safe failure modes
                5.5.9 Machine and process guarding
                • Concepts of guarding
                • Design considerations
                • Laws and regulations
                • Protection levels
                • Risk analysis
                5.5.10 Manufacturing safety: process, discrete, and hybrid
                • Hazard and Risk Analysis including Hazard and Operability (HAZOP) Studies
                • Safety life cycle
                • Allocation of safety functions to protective layers
                • Determination of safety integrity levels
                • Safety requirements specification
                • Design and engineering issues and system technologies
                • Installation, commissioning, and validation
                • Operations and maintenance
                5.5.11 Safety controller equipment
                • General Purpose Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs)
                • Safety PLCs
                • Simplex, duplex, triplex, and quad configurations
                • Selection (logic solver, devices, networks)
                • Diagnostic annunciation
                • Probabilistic modeling
                5.5.12 Safe use and application of electrical apparatus
                • Equipment for use where explosive concentrations of gas, vapor, or dust might be present
                • Installation design for hazardous areas
                • General purpose requirements
                5.5.13 Standards
                • ISA84 (IEC 61511)
                • ISO13849
                • IEC62061