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2.3 Mathematics

Using mathematics to express ideas and solve problems.

  • 2.3.1 Computation
    • Add, subtract, multiply, and divide with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents.
    • Calculate averages, ratios, proportions, and rates.
    • Convert decimals to fractions and fractions to decimals.
    • Convert fractions to percents and percents to fractions.
    • Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
    • Understand relationships between numbers and identify and understand patterns.
    • Apply arithmetic operations on numbers, percentages, square root, exponentiation, and logarithmic functions.
  • 2.3.2 Measurement and estimation
    • Take measurements of time, temperature, distances, length, width, height, perimeter, area, volume, weight, mass, velocity, and speed.
    • Use and report measurements correctly.
    • Correctly convert from one measurement or unit to another (e.g., from English to metric or International System of Units (SI), or Fahrenheit to Celsius).
  • 2.3.3 Application
    • Understand number systems and relationships (e.g., whole numbers, decimals, fractions, alternate base systems).
    • Understand plane and solid geometry (e.g., distance, perimeter, area, volume, spatial coordinates, visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling).
    • Use appropriate mathematical formulas and techniques to solve problems.
    • Translate practical problems into useful mathematical expressions.
    • Apply algebra, trigonometry, probability and statistics, differential and integral calculus, and multivariate calculus to solve engineering problems.
    • Apply an appropriate area of mathematics in the planning or design of a facility, structure, system, or product or a portion of a facility, structure, system or product.
    • Organize and analyze a data set to determine its statistical variability and to conduct hypothesis testing.
    • Apply differential equations to characterize time-dependent physical processes.
    • Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas.
    • Use inductive and deductive reasoning, conjectures, arguments, strategies, and interpretation of results.