## 2.3 Mathematics

Using mathematics to express ideas and solve problems.

• 2.3.1 Computation
• Add, subtract, multiply, and divide with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents.
• Calculate averages, ratios, proportions, and rates.
• Convert decimals to fractions and fractions to decimals.
• Convert fractions to percents and percents to fractions.
• Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals.
• Understand relationships between numbers and identify and understand patterns.
• Apply arithmetic operations on numbers, percentages, square root, exponentiation, and logarithmic functions.
• 2.3.2 Measurement and estimation
• Take measurements of time, temperature, distances, length, width, height, perimeter, area, volume, weight, mass, velocity, and speed.
• Use and report measurements correctly.
• Correctly convert from one measurement or unit to another (e.g., from English to metric or International System of Units (SI), or Fahrenheit to Celsius).
• 2.3.3 Application
• Understand number systems and relationships (e.g., whole numbers, decimals, fractions, alternate base systems).
• Understand plane and solid geometry (e.g., distance, perimeter, area, volume, spatial coordinates, visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling).
• Use appropriate mathematical formulas and techniques to solve problems.
• Translate practical problems into useful mathematical expressions.
• Apply algebra, trigonometry, probability and statistics, differential and integral calculus, and multivariate calculus to solve engineering problems.
• Apply an appropriate area of mathematics in the planning or design of a facility, structure, system, or product or a portion of a facility, structure, system or product.
• Organize and analyze a data set to determine its statistical variability and to conduct hypothesis testing.
• Apply differential equations to characterize time-dependent physical processes.
• Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas.
• Use inductive and deductive reasoning, conjectures, arguments, strategies, and interpretation of results.