## 2.3 Mathematics

Using principles of mathematics such as algebra, geometry, and trigonometry to solve problems.

• 2.3.1 Mathematical principles
• Number systems and relationships - whole numbers, decimals, fractions, alternate base systems (e.g., binary, octal, and hexadecimal numbers)
• Arithmetic – arithmetic operations on numbers, percentages, square root, exponentiation, and logarithmic functions
• Plane and solid geometry – distance, perimeter, area, and volume, spatial coordinates, visualization, spatial reasoning, and geometric modeling
• Measurement – measurement of length, mass, time, systems of measurement, units, and conversion between systems (e.g., from English to metric)
• Mathematical notation - the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas
• Mathematical reasoning and problem solving – inductive and deductive reasoning, conjectures, arguments, strategies, and interpretation of results
• Elementary statistics and laws of probability – mean, median, and standard deviation
• Algebra and functions – equations, patterns, and functions
• Elementary trigonometry – triangles and trigonometric functions
• Elementary calculus – exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions, vectors, complex numbers, conic sections, and analytic geometry
• 2.3.2 Computation
• Add, subtract, multiply, and divide with whole numbers, fractions, decimals, and percents
• Calculate averages, ratios, proportions, and rates
• Convert decimals to fractions and fractions to decimals
• Convert fractions to percents and percents to fractions
• Convert decimals to percents and percents to decimals
• 2.3.3 Measurement and estimation
• Take measurements of time, temperature, distances, length, width, height, perimeter, area, volume, weight, velocity, and speed
• Use and report measurements correctly
• Correctly convert from one measurement to another (e.g., from English to metric or International System of Units [SI], or Fahrenheit to Celsius)
• 2.3.4 Application
• Translate practical problems into useful mathematical expressions
• Use appropriate mathematical formulas and techniques to solve problems